|Das Geheimnis der Runen|
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
Guido von List
A Guido von List Society was founded 1908.
Guido von List (October 5, 1848 – May 17, 1919) was an Austrian/German (Viennese) poet, journalist, writer, businessman, mountaineer, hiker, dramatist, playwright, and rower, but was most notable as an occultist and völkisch author who is seen as one of the most important figures in Germanic revivalism, Germanic mysticism, Runic Revivalism and Runosophy in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
He is the author of 'Das Geheimnis der Runen' (The Secret of the Runes), which is a detailed study of the Armanen Futharkh, his intellectual world-view (as realised in the years between 1902 and 1908), an introduction to the rest of his work and is widely regarded as the pioneering work of Runology in modern occultism
Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels
Adolf Josef Lanz aka Jörg Lanz, who called himself Lanz von Liebenfels (July 19, 1874 – April 22, 1954), was an Austrian publicist and journalist. He was a former monk and the founder of the magazine 'Ostara', in which he published völkisch theories.As a student of Guido von List, Lanz further expanded his theories; other influences included Otto Weininger, of whom Lanz was a fervent follower.In 1904, he published his book 'Theozoologie oder die Kunde von den Sodoms-Äfflingen und dem Götter-Elektron' ("Theozoology, or the Account of the Sodomite Apelings and the Electron of the Gods") in which he glorified the "Aryan race" as "Gottmenschen" ("god-men"). Theozoology could also be classified as a work encompassing what has now come to be called cryptozoology.
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
The contemporary term Deutschgläubig for these movements may be translated as either "German Faith", "Teutonic Faith" or in the more archaic usage of Deutsch as "folk belief".
Several of these groups came together in 1933 forming an Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Deutschen Glaubensbewegung.
"Nordic" religion embraced the native religion of the Nordic race, rejecting Christianity on grounds of being a foreign ("Semitic") intrusion
|Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts|
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
The political approach as represented by Alfred Rosenberg which rejects religiosity in favour of pure völkisch political ideology.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the NSDAP. Rosenberg was first introduced to Adolf Hitler by Dietrich Eckart; he later held several important posts in the Third Reich. He is considered one of the main authors of key concepts in National Socialist ideology, including racial theory, Lebensraum, abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, and opposition to "degenerate" modern art. He is also known for his rejection of Christianity.
|General Erich Ludendorff|
Ludwig Fahrenkrog and his Germanische Glaubens-Gemeinschaft represent a specifically Germanic approach within the "Nordic" group.
Mathilde Friederike Karoline Ludendorff (born Mathilde Spiess on October 4, 1877 in Wiesbaden–died June 24, 1966 in Tutzing) was a German teacher and psychiatrist. She was the second wife of General Erich Ludendorff – he was her third husband – and a leading figure in the Völkisch movement, where she was known for her esoteric ideas. Together with Ludendorff, she founded the 'Bund für Gotteserkenntnis' (Society for the Knowledge of God), an esoterical society of Theists.
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (20 October 1867 – 27 October 1952) was a German writer, playwright and artist.
He was born in Rendsburg, Prussia, in 1867.
He taught at the Schule für Kunst und Handwerk (School of Arts and Crafts) in Bremen from 1898 to 1931.
He was also involved in the founding of a series of völkisch religious groups in the early 20th century, as part of a movement to create what its adherents referred to as a Germanische Glaubensgemeinschaft (Germanic religious community).
Fahrenkrog was trained in the classical tradition, and had a successful artistic career.
He became a professor of art in 1913.
In 1928 he received first prize at the Großen Palast (Grand Palace) exhibition in München (Munich).
His style, however, is more dependent on Art Nouveau and Symbolist influences than on the classical tradition.
|Lucifer's Lossage von Gott' - Ludwig Fahrenkrog|
The "religious mission" in question is the revival of the pre-Christian Germanic faith and the rejection of Christianity, which is hinted at in paintings such as 'Lucifer's Lossage von Gott' (Lucifer's Renunciation of God, 1898).
While Fahrenkrog's work can be seen in the context of contemporary art movements, it was also strongly influenced by his participation in the religious movement taking place at the same time.
Fahrenkrog and the Germanische Glaubensgemeinschaft
|Johann Wolfgang von Goethe|
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and polymath. His body of work includes epic and lyric poetry written in a variety of metres and styles; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour; and four novels. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters, and nearly 3,000 drawings by him are extant.
He was also involved with the Deutsche Religionsgemeinschaft (German Religious Community [DRG]), which would later change its name several times, first in 1912 to Germanische-Deutsche Religionsgemeinschaft (Germanic-German Religious Community [GDRG]), then in 1915, following a split in the membership, to the Deutschgläubige Gemeinschaft (Association of the German Faithful [DGG]).
Fahrenkrog remained with the GDRG after several members left following disagreements over the place of the old Germanic gods, and the inclusion of a partly Jewish member, and shortly thereafter the group changed its name to the Germanische Glaubens Gemeinschaft (Germanic Faith-Community [GGG]), its final form.
In 1916, the group set out ten points of common belief which they later published in 'Das Deutsche Buch' (The German Book).
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2013
(note the Thule Swastika)
At that point, the group had a large membership spread across several neighbouring countries, and plans for further growth included the building of a Germanic temple designed by Fahrenkrog's stepson.
However, the temple's construction was obstructed by protests from local Christian groups and disagreement among GGG members, and it was never finished.
In 1925, Fahrenkrog and Adolf Kroll, another early member, argued over the role that the Edda should play in the group's mythology.
Fahrenkrog believed that the GGG should evolve a new mythos, incorporating but not dependent upon the Edda, with Kroll apparently seeing this as disloyalty to the old Germanic myths.
The Thule-Gesellschaft (Thule Society), originally the 'Studiengruppe für germanisches Altertum' ("Study Group for Germanic Antiquity"), was a German occultist and völkisch group founded by Felix Niedner, the German translator of the Elder Norse Eddas, in 1910.
Are you, German soul, not rich enough to build your sanctuary out of your own primal possessions ?A suggestively Oriental pomp, always zealous for its absolutes, lies within the soul and places in subjection the receptive, faith-rich fervour of the young German.Oriental ! With that I mean Moses with his “Thou shalt not !”; or Jesus’ “No man can serve two masters,” meaning either/or, God or Mammon; or St. Paul’s inflexible “There is no other name given us under heaven by which we can be saved !” Remember also the Pope’s infallibility in the matters of the human soul. It repeats in mandatory fanaticism to the eternally questing soul an inexorable, rigid “It is so !” And the stronger the soul relies on this, in trust and faith, the sooner it is placed in subjection by means of hypnosis.The Germanic is subjugated to the Oriental. He is obliged to be, since his rich religious sensibilities still seek for answers in the east. Here they will be given to him. He must remain in subjection like a clever, curious child, that in looking at endless wonders cannot yet answer for himself, and half in slumber and dream plays with giant-images and fog-elves, and depends on those humans he regards as mature and wise. Of himself the Germanic wouldn't be as bold or arrogant enough to allege and proclaim a universal “It is so !” He trusted the zealous foreigner — and was truer to the foreign words than their preachers, as the German soul with the coming of Martin Luther awoke and with fervour and might made protest. “Here I stand, I can do no other !” That was the voice of eternity, the sound of religious depth, a compulsion from God. Luther shook off the infallibility of the Romans; but in seeking a balance of power he set up another: the infallibility of the Bible - the revealed word of God of the Orient.If only he had discovered the soul as the last best and deepest place of divine revelation, and the human soul as the determining law of a religious vision, that after all can give no word other than that which is living in it ! — Well, anyway. Since Luther’s day Germany’s soul began to free itself from alienating oriental myth and sought its Self.Is not every true science a striving for truth ? Every true word — even when it has dogmas and priests lined up against it — a divine word ? Did not Jesus also speak of a divine truth when he said, “The kingdom of heaven is within you ! — not in that built with hands !”We stand at the turning-point to an earlier era. It is like when a person casts off an old and familiar garment. Fleeing frippery, the soul wants to be simple — to be naked.Humans are filled with embarrassment at their own soul, and threads which spin across from the soul’s womb.
Ludwig Fahrenkrog - 1907
The GGG under the Third Reich
© Copyright Peter Crawford 2014
When the NSDAP came to power in 1933, they outlawed almost all other groups not affiliated with the party.
The GGG, however, was not forced to disband, nevertheless, some of its activities were limited.
They could no longer hold public meetings, and after 1938 could no longer use the swastika, which the GGG had been using as its symbol since 1908.
In 1934, somewhat surprisingly, an exhibit of his paintings was prohibited by the ministry of propaganda.
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei - abbreviated NSDAP - (The National Socialist German Workers' Party ), was a political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945. Its predecessor, the German Workers' Party (DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920.